LIST OF WARNINGS
1. Bilge pump
2. Toilet system
4. Depth sounder
5. Location of important valves and equipment
6. Roller furling system
7. Bleeding air from the fuel system
8. Tool kit contents
- STOVE: NEVER POUR FUEL DIRECTLY INTO BURNER CUP. NEVER COVER STOVE UNTIL FLAME IS OUT.
- TOILET: NEVER FORCE THE TOILET PUMP. NEVER PUT SANITARY NAPKINS OR SIMILAR ITEMS IN THE TOILET.
- FUEL SYSTEM: NEVER OVERTIGHTEN SECONDARY FILTER BLEED SCREW.
- ROLLER FURLER: TOUCH JIB HALYARD ONLY TO REMOVE SAIL. NEVER USE A WINCH ON FURLING LINE.
- SEACOCKS: DO NOT FORCE SEACOCK HANDLES.
- SEA STRAINER: BE SURE STRAINER COVER IS ON TIGHT AND NOT LEAKING AFTER CLEANING.
1. AUTOMATIC BILGE PUMP OPERATION: Albin 28
DESCRIPTION: This vessel is equipped with an electric bilge pump which is operated by an automatic switch in the bilge next to the pump. There may also be an operable auto/manual switch located near the sink. The automatic setting on the wall switch near the sink has no impact on the bilge pump. If the switch is in the off position the bilge pump still functions automatically since the automatic switch in the bilge is wired directly to the battery.
FUSE: The bilge pump is protected by a 10 AMP fuse located in a yellow pull-apart holder at the buss bar in the battery box behind the battery switch. The fuse is in the holder connected to a RED WIRE. Do not put a larger fuse in as a replacement since this will void the overcurrent protection offered by the correct fuse and could cause the pump wires to overheat in the event of a pump malfunction possibly causing a fire. Use a smaller fuse if the correct size is not available.
BILGE PUMP FLOAT SWITCH: This switch is a plastic cylinder with a float inside and 5 wires coming from the top located under the floorboards in the bilge. Two wires (BROWN AND BLACK) are connected to the battery directly, two wires (RED AND BLACK) are connected to the pump and a third wire (BROWN) is connected to the switch near the sink. The point at which the automatic switch activates the pump is determined by the adjusted height of the plastic cylinder in the bilge. Lower turns it on more often, higher less often. If it is adjusted too low the pump may go on and off continuously and run the battery down. To adjust it higher or lower, simply loosen the hose clamp securing it vertically to the bilge side and slide the cylinder up or down. Be sure the wires on top of the switch will not be pressed down by the bilge floorboards when they are put back in place.
TROUBLESHOOTING BILGE PUMP PROBLEMS
- SYMPTOM: Pump won’t shut off:
- PROBLEMS: Switch needs adjustment (upward)
- SYMPTOM: Bilge pump blows fuses
- PROBLEM: In-line fuse is too small; debris, hair, etc caught in bilge pump impeller
- SOLUTIONS: Replace too small fuse with correct size; remove pump strainer, clean out debris.
- SYMPTOM: Bilge pump inefficient (pumps slower than it should).
- PROBLEM: Pump strainer clogged with debris; battery voltage low
- SOLUTIONS: Remove strainer basket and clean out; charge battery.
- SYMPTOM: Pump works but water comes back into bilge almost immediately
- PROBLEM: Bilge hose disconnected or leaking along the way aft.
- SOLUTIONS: Find leak, tape temporarily or reconnect if hose has come off outlet
- SYMPTOM: Pump won’t turn on manually or automatically despite water in the bilge.
- PROBLEM: Fuse is blown; wires disconnected or broken; pump or switch defective.
- SOLUTIONS: Replace fuse with correct size; locate and correct defective wiring; replace parts.
2. TOILET AND HOLDING TANK SYSTEM: Albin 28
THE LAW: It is illegal to discharge untreated sewage into the waterway within 3 miles of shore. Many harbors are no discharge zones and holding tanks must be used.
THE SYSTEM: The sanitation system consists of a toilet, a complex of intake and discharge hoses, a “Y” valve (under the head sink) to direct sewage to a holding tank (forward, under the V-Berth) or overboard, an electric macerator pump to discharge tank contents overboard where legal to do so (the macerator switch is located in the “notch” of the v-berth at about kneecap level). The tank can also be emptied by a dockside or waterborne pumpout boat through a deck fill opening marked “waste” on the port side of the deck near the shrouds.
USING THE TOILET: Place the black lever on top of the toilet pump to the “wet bowl” position and pump several strokes to wet the bowl before using. After using the toilet with the lever still on “wet bowl”, pump the bowl empty using about 15 strokes to clear the discharge hoses (if pumping overboard) and 5 strokes if pumping into the holding tank. Then place the lever on “dry bowl”, and pump until just a cup of water remains in the bowl.
SPECIAL CAUTIONS: TO AVOID CLOGGING THE TOILET USE TOILET PAPER VERY SPARINGLY, USE LOTS OF FLUSH WATER, DO NOT PUT HARD OBJECTS OR SANITARY NAPKINS INTO THE TOILET.
USING THE HOLDING TANK: There is a “Y” valve in the toilet discharge line which directs sewage flow either overboard or into the holding tank. The short pointer end of the “Y” valve handle CLOSES the hose line it is pointed to. The hoses are labeled “SEA, TANK and OFF” so that when the pointer aligns with the hose marked “SEA” sewage is discharged overboard. Conversely to pump into the holding tank turn the pointer to “TANK”. When the “Y” valve is in the middle it is OFF, meaning the toilet can’t be used for either overboard or tank discharge. The holding tank holds 9 gallons.
EMPTYING THE HOLDING TANK AT SEA: The holding tank can be emptied at sea by turning the Y valve to the TANK position and pressing the black pumpout switch located on the fiberglass wall of the V notch of the V- berth. While the pump is running, pump fresh seawater into the tank by pumping the toilet handle with the wet bowl setting engaged. The tank will empty in about one minute. When the pitch of the pump changes the tank is empty.
EMPTYING THE HOLDING TANK DOCKSIDE OR VIA PUMPOUT BOAT: To empty it dockside place the suction hose into the deck fitting marked “waste” and activate suction pump. REPLACING THE HEAD TREATMENT CANNISTER: Some intake lines are fitted with a head treatment dispenser (in a small plastic bottle fitted to the head plumbing between the pump and the bowl.intake) which helps maintain the toilet system. It imparts a blue color to the intake water when flushing. It water does not flush blue the cannister is empty and needs to be replaced. Unscrew the empty plastic bottle and replace with a refill, being careful not to lose the rubber washer in the lid. DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN the bottle into the lid or the lid fitting could crack.
TROUBLESHOOTING THE TOILET SYSTEM
- SYMPTOM: Lots of resistance when using the toilet pump with Y valve set to SEA.
- PROBLEM: Clogged discharge line, most likely at the discharge seacock. Discharge line filled.
- SOLUTION: Close seacock, carefully remove discharge hose and remove visible material, reopen seacock slowly to backflush anything remaining in line, reattach hose securely. Catch sewage in container, wear gloves and DO NOT FORCE ANYTHING.
- SYMPTOM: Lots of resistance when I use the toilet pump with Y valve set to TANK.
- PROBLEM: Holding tank is full.
- SOLUTION: Empty the holding tank.
- SYMPTOM: Sewage coming out of holding tank vent/sewage odor onboard.
- PROBLEM: Holding tank is full.
- SOLUTION: Empty the holding tank.
- SYMPTOM: Weak inflow of seawater into bowl, weak discharge pump action.
- PROBLEM: Weak spring on valve in intake line; Piston in pump cylinder is worn.
- SOLUTION: Change piston and valves.
- SYMPTOM: Macerator pump does not operate.
- PROBLEM: Blown fuse, bad switch, pump defective, loose/broken wire, stuck armature.
- SOLUTION: If fuse is blown, remove plastic cover at back end of pump, insert screwdriver into armature slot and twist to free stuck armature, then replace fuse (20 amp). Replace switch, replace pump, fix loose or broken wires.
3. USING THE ORIGO ALCOHOL STOVE: Albin 28
DESCRIPTION: The stove uses a rock wool cannister beneath the stove top to contain the alcohol fuel. This cannister is pressed upward against a rotating cover by two crossed springs on which the cannister rests. The rotating cover is operated by the control wheel on the front of the stove and alters the amount of air exposed to the alcohol flame regulating the temperature or extinguishing the cooking flame. Because they are unpressurized and have few moving parts, they have proven themselves very reliable and efficient in service.
FILLING THE FUEL CANNISTER: Rotate the control wheels to unlock the stove top cover and lift the cover up. Remove the fuel cannister. HOLD THE CANISTER AT A 45 DEGREE ANGLE AND FILL WITH BOAT STOVE ALCOHOL ONLY UNTIL FUEL REACHES THE LOWER LIP OF THE CANNISTER OPENING. The cannister is now HALF FILLED with alcohol but is FULL from the standpoint of using the stove. (As the alcohol is heated it will expand in volume and spill over the top of the cannister lid if it is filled more than halfway. This will cause flames to spread outside the cannister into the pan beneath the stove. Replace the half-filled cannister onto the support springs being sure the cannister does not “stick” in the springs but moves freely. Replace the stove top and lock in place with the control wheel.
LIGHTING THE STOVE: Open the control wheel to uncover the cannister opening. Drop a lighted match into the bowl opening over the canister. Control the flame by rotating the control wheel. To extinguish the flame, rotate the control wheel until it fully covers the canister.
1. Do not pour fuel directly into flame cups.
2. Do not put the wood cover over the stove top until you are sure the flame is extinguished.
4. USING THE DEPTHSOUNDER: Albin 28
THE INSTRUMENT: The Albin 28 is equipped with the DATAMARINE 200 DL depthsounder. The instrument is switched on at the boat electrical panel (usually the instrument or depthsounder switch), and is protected by a 1AMP fuse located in a fuse holder located immediately next to the instrument. and connected to the red (+) wire.
FEATURES: This depthsounder has a range of 2.5 to 199 ft. For depths over 10 feet the readout indicates whole feet; for depths under 10 feet the readout reads in feet and 10ths of a foot. Accuracy of the instrument is within 1 ft over 10 ft of depth and within .2 feet below 10 ft in depth. The front panel has an alarm setting which permits setting a depth alarm to sound at depths of 4ft or 8 ft, depending on the setting. The alarm can be turned off with the same switch.
ADJUSTMENTS: The back of the instrument has an OFF-DAY-NIGHT switch. Off terminates all power to the instrument, the day switch turns the instrument on for daytime viewing, and the night switch imparts a low level background illumination to the instrument. In most instances the unit should be turned to “NIGHT” so illumination is always available in reduced light circumstances.
5. BLEEDING THE FUEL SYSTEM: Albin 28
DESCRIPTION. The fuel system consists of the deck fill plate (usually red in color), the fill pipe, the tank, the fuel pickup, fuel shutoff petcock, primary filter, fuel pump, secondary filter, injection pump and fuel injectors. These parts are listed in their order of appearance from start to finish; parts from the fuel pump on are physically located on the engine.
PROBLEM OF AIR IN THE FUEL SYSTEM: From time to time the fuel system will be impacted by air in the fuel lines and lead to an engine shutdown. When air enters the fuel lines the system loses its prime and with it the ability to draw fuel from the tank and push it forward to the injection pump. This is normally caused by running the engine with a low fuel supply. Motor sailing with low fuel or being in a sloppy wave environment increase the likelihood that air will be drawn into the system as the fuel pickup line experiences periods when it is not fully immersed in fuel. The size, location, and configuration of the fuel tank also contribute to air problems. The problem may reveal itself several weeks after air was drawn into the system as the bubble moves downstream slowly.
PURGING AIR FROM THE SYSTEM: Air must be purged and replaced with solid fuel from the tank pickup line through to the injection pump. It is generally not necessary to bleed the injectors. No step below can be omitted if purging is to be successful.
1. BLEED THE PRIMARY FILTER: The primary filter has a bleed screw (either plastic or brass) on the top next to a knurled white knob (the priming pump). Unscrew the bleed screw a few turns, loosen the knurled white knob until it lifts up, then pump it until fuel comes out the bleed screw port. Close the bleed screw (snug so it doesn’t leak, not tight so it breaks off), and screw the knurled pump knob back down onto its seat.
2. BLEED THE SECONDARY FILTER: The secondary filter is a cannister mounted up front on top of the engine. There is a 10 mm bleed screw (also slotted for Phillips screwdriver) on top of this cannister. Unscrew this a few turns, reach aft to the fuel p[ump (follow the fuel inlet line back to pump), find the priming lever outside the pump and work it up and down until solid fuel emerges from the bleed screw on the secondary filter. CAREFULLY close the screw (snug, not tight) so it doesn’t leak fuel. OVERTIGHTENING THIS SCREW CAN BREAK THE CANNISTER THREADS AND CAUSE A PERMANENT LEAK
3. BLEED THE INJECTION PUMP INLET LINE: Follow the metal braided fuel line from the secondary filter to the injection pump. There is a 10 mm bleed screw on the top of the fuel inlet line bolt (the bolt that holds the fuel line to the injection pump). Loosen this a few turns and operate the priming lever on the fuel pump again to purge air from the line leading to the injection pump. When solid fuel emerges, close the bleed screw and start the engine. It should start after a few spins.
6. LOCATION OF SIGNIFICANT ITEMS: Albin 28
SEACOCKS/STRAINER ENGINE COOLING WATER INTAKE: The engine water intake seacock is beneath a wood cover panel under the port main salon cushion below the stove. It is the smaller diameter valve of the two located there and may either be a gatewheel (clockwise to close) or a conventional seacock with handle (handle in line with valve when open).
STRAINER:The intake water strainer is located inside the engine compartment on the right wall of the engine box as you face the front of the engine.
HEAD INTAKE AND DISCHARGE SEACOCKS: Under a wood cover beneath the starboard main salon settee cushion, forward, next to the head bulkhead.
BATHROOM SINK DISCHARGE SEACOCK: Under a wood cover beneath the starboard main salon settee cushion, forward, next to the head bulkhead.
GALLEY SINK DISCHARGE SEACOCK: The galley sink discharge seacock is beneath a wood cover panel under the port main salon cushion below the stove. It is the larger diameter valve of the two located there and may either be a gatewheel (turn clockwise to close) or a conventional seacock (handle in lone with valve when open).
BATTERIES/BATTERY SWITCH: 2 95 amp hour batteries are located beneath a wood cover under the starboard main salon settee berth immediately behind the battery switch.
TANKS: HOLDING TANK: A 9 gallon holding tank is located on the starboard side of the V-berth beneath a wood cover.
FUEL TANK: An 8 gallon fuel tank is directly beneath the fuel fill pipe in the starboard stern quarter of the boat. It may be accessed through the aft lazarette hatch cover in the cockpit. Fuel is measured with a dipstick in the stern locker–11-12 inches are full. Fuel use is roughly 1/3 gallon per hour. Fuel level should not drop below 3 inches before refill.
WATER TANKS: There is a 9 gallon water tank under a cover board on the port side of the V-berth.
FUEL SHUTOFF VALVE: Located in the engine compartment next to or on the primary filter.
7. PROPER USE OF THE ROLLER FURLING SYSTEM
DESCRIPTION: The system used on the Albin 28 is a Schaeffer 1100. It consists of a top swivel connected to the head of the jib, a series of extrusions which fit over the forestay, and a furling drum at the bottom fitted over the turnbuckle adjusting headstay tension. Projecting up from the furling drum is a torque tube which takes up much of the loading caused by the furling drum. A furling line is led to the aft area of the cockpit so the sail can be opened or furled from that area.
USING THE SYSTEM: The sail is unfurled (set) with the jib sheets. After raising the mainsail and when the boat is in the open away from other yachts, release the lightweight furling line so it is free to run without snarling. Then with the boat on a reach, pull the leeward jib sheet and the wind will unfurl the sail. To use less than the full amount of sail area, ease the leeward jib sheet so there is less tension on the sail and pull the furling line until the desired amount of sail area is reached. There should be some tension on the jib sheet while doing this to ensure a tight furl on the headstay. To furl the jib, ease sheet tension and pull in the furling line until the sail is fully furled. Again, maintain some tension on the jib sheet to permit a tight wrap on the furler.
LEAVING THE BOAT: When leaving a boat with a furler the jib should be tight on the furler, with only a postage stamp area of sail projecting (if any), The sheets should be tightly secured around the jib sheet cleats aft, and the furling line should also be firmly secured. Any looseness in the system will cause a problem if strong winds develop and the jib, because of looseness is allowed to unfurl and catch the wind. This is especially the case if the jib is loosely furled with the sheets not secured, and the clew facing forward in a “catch wind” position. A strong wind will cause a loosely furled sail to catch wind and partially unfurl the sail damaging both sail and rig.
1. HALYARD WRAP. The jib halyard should be taut at all times to prevent “halyard wrap” a condition in which the jib halyard is pulled out of the mast and wraps around the headstay when the sail is unfurled, tightens around the headstay wire, unlaying and weakening it. The symptoms of this condition are resistance when the sail is furled or unfurled or the inability to furl or unfurl the sail fully. If this condition occurs look aloft to be sure the jib halyard is not wrapping around the headstay–it should lead directly from the mast to the top furler swivel. If it is wrapped, do not use the boat since significant damage may have occurred. Furl the sail by hand by wrapping the sail manually around the headstay. It may be useful to untie the jib sheets to do this but reattach them after manually furling the sail.
2. FURLING LINE JAMMED OR JUMPS THE DRUM. Sometimes, if the sail is unfurled too quickly the furling line cannot unreel quickly enough and begins rewinding on the drum in the opposite direction (backlashing) similar what happens on a fishing reel that is unreeled too quickly. If this happens manually turn the furling drum until the rewrapped section of furling line can be pulled free. If the furling line jumps the drum, realign it so it does not drag over the cage surrounding the drum but wraps cleanly on the drum itself.
WARNING: Never use a winch to furl the sail.
8: CONTENTS OF THE SPARES AND TOOL KITS:
Tools: Located in orange box marked “Tools”
- Complete metric open end wrenches (for engine only) sizes 8 to 17 millimeter
- Complete American standard open end wrenches 1/4 to 7/8
- 5 assorted screwdrivers
- 1 adjustable wrench
- 1 adjustable pipe wrench
- 1 set vise grips
- 1 razor knife
- Flashlight with 4 spare batteries
- 1 set Allen wrenches 5/64 – 1/4
Spares: Located in orange box marked “Spares”.
- Set of engine drive belts
- Raw water pump impeller and O-ring gasket.
- Miscellaneous bulbs for running and interior lights
- Sail slides and shackles
- Clevis pins and cotter rings/pins assortment
- Miscellaneous nuts bolts, screws
- Set of hose clamps, various sizes
- EMERGENCY WOOD PLUG SET
- Boxes of spare fuses 1-20 amp.
- Set of shear pins for outboard motor
- Toilet rebuild kit for Jabsco 29090 toilet
- 2 quarts of SAE 30 motor oil for engine and transmission
- 2 pts of outboard motor oil for dinghy motor
LUBRICATION REQUIREMENTS: Albin 28/Scampi 30
Engine: SAE 30 wt detergent oil specified for diesels. Do not use multi-viscisity oil in these engines since they will not mix well with single weight oil. Check oil regularly and add oil only through the yellow oil fill caps on the engine. Do not overfill.
Transmission: SAE 30 motor oil. These engines use motor oil in the gearboxes, not transmission fluid. To test gearbox level, unscrew yellow fill cap on transmission, wipe clean and set on top of opening. Do not screw it back in for reading. Proper level will be at the mark on the bottom of the dipstick. Look carefully at it since the oil is transparent. Add oil if needed in small quantities, retesting for level as you go. Do not overfill.
Outboard Motor: Use outboard motor oil only. Mix with gasoline to achieve a 50 to 1 gas to oil ratio. When filling, add oil to tank first and then add gasoline to aid in mixing the fuel and oil.