LIST OF WARNINGS
1. Bilge pump
2. Shower pump
3. Toilet system
5. Depth sounder
6. Location of important valves and equipment
7. Roller furling system
8. Bleeding air from the fuel system
9. Tool kit contents
- STOVE: TURN OFF PROPANE SWITCH AND TANK VALVE WHEN NOT USING STOVE. NEVER COVER STOVE UNTIL FLAME IS OUT.
- TOILET: NEVER FORCE THE TOILET PUMP. DO NOT PUT SANITARY NAPKINS OR SIMILAR PRODUCTS IN THE TOILET.
- FUEL SYSTEM: NEVER OVERTIGHTEN SECONDARY FILTER BLEED SCREW.
- ROLLER FURLER: TOUCH JIB HALYARD ONLY TO REMOVE SAIL. NEVER USE A WINCH ON FURLING LINE.
- SEACOCKS: DO NOT FORCE SEACOCK HANDLES.
- SEA STRAINER: BE SURE STRAINER COVER IS ON TIGHT AND NOT LEAKING AFTER CLEANING.
1. AUTOMATIC BILGE PUMP OPERATION: P31/Cal 33/P34
DESCRIPTION: These vessel are equipped with an electric bilge pump which is operated automatically with a Ultra Pumpswitch and can be operated manually by flipping the bilge pump switch on the instrument panel. The switch is connected directly to the vessel’s batteries and operates independent of the switch panel, so even when the panel is switched to “Off” the automatic operation of the pump is still working.
FUSE: The bilge pump is protected by a 10 AMP fuse located in a yellow pull-apart holder at the bilge pump connection to the (+) battery terminal. Do not put a larger fuse in as a replacement since this will void the overcurrent protection offered by the correct fuse and could cause the pump wires to overheat in the event of a pump malfunction possibly causing a fire. Use a smaller fuse if the correct size is not available.
BILGE PUMP SWITCH: The switch is a plastic cylinder located adjacent to the pump in the bilge beneath the center floorboards. There is a float inside the cylinder which rises as water enters through holes in the bottom. When the float rises to a certain point it activates a magnetic switch in the top of the cylinder turning the pump on. The pump shuts off when sufficient water is evacuated to open the switch. To pump more water out use the panel switch or the manual pump.
ADJUSTING THE PUMP SWITCH: The switch can be adjusted by loosening the hose clamp holding the switch cylinder in place and raising or lowering the cylinder in the clamp. Lowering the cylinder will cause the pump to turn on at a bilge water level; raising it will cause more water to accumulate before the pump activates With water in the bilge you can fine tune the adjustment of the switch for the best operation. CAUTION: You can never pump the bilge down below the point at which the pump begins drawing in air instead of water. Also, water left in the discharge line can flow back into the bilge. Either condition (air or backflow) will cause the pump to cycle excessively and run the battery down.
- SYMPTOM: Pump cycles excessively:
- PROBLEMS: 1. Switch adjusted improperly, 2. leaking bilge hose, 3. boat leaking.
- SOLUTIONS: 1. Adjust switch until pump stops. Retest by putting water into the bilge. 2. Follow hose line to check for leaks downstream, tape or resecure as needed. 3. Stop leaks by looking at the obvious places–stuffing box, through hulls, hoses lines, scupper drains.
- SYMPTOM: Bilge pump inefficient (pumps slower than it should).
- PROBLEM: 1. Pump strainer clogged with debris; 2. Battery voltage low.
- SOLUTIONS: 1.Remove strainer basket and clean out; 2. Charge battery.
- SYMPTOM: Pump won’t turn on manually or automatically despite water in the bilge.
- PROBLEM: 1. Fuse is blown; 2.Loose wires; 3. Pump or switch defective.
- SOLUTIONS: 1. Replace fuse (10 amps) ; Check battery for loose wires. 3. Replace pump/switch.
2. ACTIVATION OF THE SHOWER SUMP PUMP: P31/P34
THE SYSTEM: The shower sump drain removes water from the shower floor. A pump removes this water, passes it through a strainer and discharges it overboard.
LOCATION OF THE SHOWER DRAIN PUMP: On the Pearson 31 the pump unit and strainer are located beneath the starboard main salon berth in the corner near the bulkhead. It is protected by a 10AMP fuse inside the yellow pull-apart fuse holder next to the pump.
USING THE SHOWER DRAIN PUMP: On the Pearson 31 turn the pressure water switch on the instrument panel on, then flip the rocker switch in the shower pan area to activate the pump. Turn the pump off when the water is gone.
TROUBLESHOOTING THE SHOWER SUMP DRAIN
- SYMPTOM: Pump goes on but withdraws water very slowly if at all.
- PROBLEM: Pump filter is clogged with hair/other debris.
- SOLUTION: Clean filter.
- SYMPTOM: Pump operates well but does not pump any water out.
- PROBLEM: Air leak in suction hose, most likely the filter is not airtight or the hose clamps on the suction side of the system have been distorted by the hose clamps and are sucking air into the system rather than water.
- SOLUTION: Check hose clamps on suction side of pump and strainer and look for out-of roundness of plastic hose barbs. Be sure pump filter is airtight.
- SYMPTOM: Pump blows fuses.
- PROBLEM: Fuses too small, pump filter clogged causing excessive resistance.
- SOLUTION: Replace with correct size fuse (10 AMP), clean pump filter.
3. TOILET AND HOLDING TANK SYSTEM: P31/Cal 33/P34
THE LAW: It is illegal to discharge untreated sewage into the waterway within 3 miles of shore. Many harbors are no discharge zones and holding tanks must be used.
THE SYSTEM: The sanitation system consists of a toilet, a complex of intake and discharge hoses, a “Y” valve (under the wood cover on starboard side of the V-berth on the Cal 33, behind the toilet on the P31, and under the starboard main salon berth on the 34) to direct sewage to a holding tank or overboard. The Cal 33 has a manual pump forward in the notch of the V-berth to discharge offshore; The P34 has an electric macerator switch on the starboard settee to discharge overboard. The P31 has no overboard discharge capability. All boats have a deck discharge port to pump out dockside.
USING THE TOILET: Place the black lever on top of the toilet pump to the “wet bowl”position and pump several strokes to wet the bowl before using. After using the toilet with the lever still on “wet bowl”, pump the bowl empty using about 15 strokes to clear the discharge hoses (if pumping overboard) and 5 strokes if pumping into the holding tank. Then place the lever on “dry bowl”, and pump until just a cup of water remains in the bowl.
SPECIAL CAUTIONS: TO AVOID CLOGGING THE TOILET USE TOILET PAPER VERY SPARINGLY, USE LOTS OF FLUSH WATER, DO NOT PUT HARD OBJECTS OR SANITARY NAPKINS INTO THE TOILET.
USING THE HOLDING TANK: There is a “Y” valve in the toilet discharge line which directs sewage flow either overboard or into the holding tank. The short pointer end of the “Y” valve handle CLOSES the hose line it is pointed to. The hoses are labeled “SEA, TANK and OFF” so that when the pointer aligns with the hose marked “SEA” sewage is discharged overboard (even though the line labeled sea actually goes to the holding tank. Conversely to pump into the holding tank turn the pointer to “TANK”. When the “Y” valve is in the middle it is OFF, meaning the toilet can’t be used for either overboard or tank discharge. The holding tank has a 20 gallon capacity and will have to be emptied regularly to function well.
EMPTYING THE HOLDING TANK AT SEA: The holding tank uses a manual pump to empty sewage from the tank and discharge it through a “T” fitting plumbed into the toilet discharge line. To empty the tank at sea place the handle in the manual pump and pump until the tank is emptied. To empty it dockside place the suction hose into the deck fitting marked “waste” and activate suction pump.
REPLACING THE HEAD TREATMENT CANNISTER: All intake lines are fitted with a head treatment dispenser (in a small plastic bottle fitted to the head plumbing between the pump and the bowl.intake) which helps maintain the toilet system. It imparts a blue color to the intake water when flushing. It water does not flush blue the cannister is empty and needs to be replaced. Unscrew the empty plastic bottle and replace with a refill, being careful not to lose the rubber washer in the lid. Do not overtighten the bottle into the lid or the lid fitting could crack.
TROUBLESHOOTING THE TOILET SYSTEM
- SYMPTOM: Lots of resistance when using the toilet pump (Y valve set to SEA).
- PROBLEM: Clogged discharge line, most likely at the discharge seacock. Discharge line filled.
- SOLUTION: Close seacock, carefully remove discharge hose and remove visible material, reopen seacock slowly to backflush anything remaining in line, REATTACH HOSE SECURELY. Report repair to office so it can be checked for safety. Catch sewage in container, wear gloves and DO NOT FORCE ANYTHING.
- SYMPTOM: Lots of resistance when I use the toilet pump (Y valve set to TANK).
- PROBLEM: Holding tank is full.
- SOLUTION: Empty the holding tank
- SYMPTOM: Sewage coming out of holding tank vent onto port deck.
- PROBLEM: Holding tank is full.
- SOLUTION: Empty the holding tank.
- SYMPTOM: Weak inflow of seawater into bowl, weak discharge pump action.
- PROBLEM: Weak spring on valve in intake line; Piston in pump cylinder is worn.
- SOLUTION: Change piston and valves.
- SYMPTOM: Manual pump moves but will not empty tank.
- PROBLEM: Pump discharge valve held open by discharge debris.
- SOLUTION: Disconnect hose at discharge side of pump and clean outlet valve.
- SYMPTOM: Macerator pump fuse is blown (P34).
- PROBLEM: Armature of macerator pump is stuck.
- SOLUTION:remove plastic cap from end of pump, insert screwdriver into slot at end, turn armature manually to free it. Replace fuse (20 amp).
4. STOVE OPERATION: P31/Cal 33/P34
DESCRIPTION: The system consists of a propane tank (with spare) in a special cockpit propane locker connected to a regulator, pressure gauge and valve wheel on the tank top to shut off or open the gas supply. The tank is plumbed to a stove with two top burners and an oven with automatic igniter. An electric switch on the bulkhead over the icebox controls the electric shutoff solenoid in the propane locker and opens or closes the fuel flow to the stove. The automatic igniter provides initial ignition to the oven and reignites periodically to maintain even temperature.
FUEL TANK: There are one or 2 propane tanks stored in the aft cockpit lockers. To switch tanks, turn the valve wheel on the tank to the closed position, unscrew the hose connection (NOTE: Propane fittings are reverse threaded–turn counterclockwise to loosen, clockwise to tighten.) and replace the tank with a filled one. Be sure the fittings are snug so they don’t leak.
LIGHTING THE TOP STOVE BURNERS: Open the valve wheel on the tank top, turn the electric fuel shutoff to “ON”. The right two knobs on the stove control the left and right burners. To ignite the right stove top burner, push the rightmost control knob in and turn to the left until gas is emitted. Light as you would a home gas range. To light the left burner push in the knob next to the rightmost knob, turn to the left until propane emerges and light normally. Adjust flame by turning the knobs. Extinguish flame by turning knobs fully to the right.
LIGHTING THE OVEN BURNER: Open the valve wheel on the tank top, turn the electric switch to the “ON” position. Push in and turn the oven control knob (to the left) and position to the desired temperature. Immediately light the Oven Pilot by pressing the pilot light switch on the panel. After 10-15 seconds, oven burner will light. When set temperature is reached, burner will drop back to low flame, and then go out. As the oven cools down, the burner will relight to maintain the desired temperature.
CAUTION: NEVER LEAVE AN OPERATING STOVE UNATTENDED
USING THE DEPTH SOUNDER: P31/Cal 33/P34
5. LOCATION OF SIGNIFICANT ITEMS: P31/Cal 33/P34
SEACOCKS/STRAINER ENGINE COOLING WATER INTAKE: P31– under a wood cover near the driveshaft; Cal 33- Immediately beneath a wood cover panel under the forward end of the quarterberth. P34 – Next to the engine in the engine compartment.
STRAINER: P31 – Behind the wood inspection cover in front of the engine box, behind the ladder. CAL 33 Immediately beneath the wood cover panel under the forward end of the quarterberth, next to the engine intake water seacock. P34 In the engine compartment.
HEAD INTAKE AND DISCHARGE: P31 – Discharge (under the sink) Intake under the starboard berth, main salon. Cal 33 Under the starboard side of the V-berth beneath a wood coverboard under the starboard cushion. P34- Under the starboard berth in the main salon.
BATHROOM SINK DISCHARGE: P31- Under the starboard berth in the main salon. Cal 33 Immediately beneath the sink behind the wood door. P34 – Beneath the sink.
GALLEY SINK DISCHARGE: P31/Cal 33/P34 – Beneath the galley sink.
BATTERIES/CHARGER P31/P34: Batteries are under the quarterberth. No chargers Cal 33: Beneath the starboard settee cushion next to the head bulkhead. The charger is located beneath the chart table.
HOLDING TANK: P31/Cal 33 In the v-berth beneath a wood coverboard under the cushions in the center of the berth. P34 Under the starboard berth in the main salon.
FUEL TANK: P31- 20 gallon fuel tank is located beneath a wood coverboard under quarterberth and has a direct read gauge on top. The fuel shut off is at the tank. Cal 33- a 25 gallon tank is beneath the port main salon berth. There is a direct reading fuel gauge and fuel shutoff on top of the tank. P34 – Under the cockpit sole behind the engine. Determine fuel level with a dipstick.
WATER TANKS: There are 2 water tanks beneath the port settee berth forward and another beneath the starboard settee berth in the main salon on each boat.
PROPANE: Propane tanks are located in the port and starboard aft cockpit lockers which are expressly reserved and fitted for propane storage. Do not store propane anywhere else.
EMERGENCY TILLER: Vessels with wheels are also equipped with an emergency tiller which is an L-shaped aluminum tube located in the cockpit locker.
7. PROPER USE OF THE ROLLER FURLING SYSTEM
DESCRIPTION: There are various systems on these boats. The system consists of a top swivel connected to the head of the jib, a series of extrusions which fit over the forestay, and a furling drum at the bottom fitted over the turnbuckle adjusting headstay tension. Projecting up from the furling drum is a torque tube which takes up much of the loading caused by the furling drum. A furling line is led to the aft area of the cockpit so the sail can be opened or furled from that area.
USING THE SYSTEM: The sail is unfurled (set) with the jib sheets. After raising the mainsail and when the boat is in the open away from other yachts, release the lightweight furling line so it is free to run without snarling. Then with the boat on a reach, pull the leeward jib sheet and the wind will unfurl the sail. To use less than the full amount of sail area, ease the leeward jib sheet so there is less tension on the sail and pull the furling line until the desired amount of sail area is reached. There should be some tension on the jib sheet while doing this to ensure a tight furl on the headstay. To furl the jib, ease sheet tension and pull in the furling line until the sail is fully furled. Again, maintain some tension on the jib sheet to permit a tight wrap on the furler.
LEAVING THE BOAT: When leaving a boat with a furler the jib should be tight on the furler, with only a postage stamp area of sail projecting (if any), The sheets should be tightly secured around the jib sheet cleats aft, and the furling line should also be firmly secured. Any looseness in the system will cause a problem if strong winds develop and the jib, because of looseness is allowed to unfurl and catch the wind. This is especially the case if the jib is loosely furled with the sheets not secured, and the clew facing forward in a “catch wind” position. A strong wind will cause a loosely furled sail to catch wind and damage both sail and rig.
1. HALYARD WRAP. The jib halyard should be taut at all times to prevent “halyard wrap” a condition in which the jib halyard is pulled out of the mast and wraps around the headstay when the sail is unfurled, tightens around the headstay wire, unlaying and weakening it. The symptoms of this condition are resistance when the sail is furled or unfurled or the inability to furl or unfurl the sail fully. If this condition occurs look aloft to be sure the jib halyard is not wrapping around the headstay–it should lead directly from the mast to the top furler swivel. If it is wrapped, do not use the boat since significant damage may have occurred. Furl the sail by hand by wrapping the sail manually around the headstay. It may be useful to untie the jib sheets to do this but reattach them after manually furling the sail.
2. FURLING LINE JAMMED OR JUMPS THE DRUM. Sometimes, if the sail is unfurled too quickly the furling line cannot unreel quickly enough and begins rewinding on the drum in the opposite direction (backlashing) similar what happens on a fishing reel that is unreeled too quickly. If this happens manually turn the furling drum until the rewrapped section of furling line can be pulled free. If the furling line jumps the drum, realign it so it does not drag over the cage surrounding the drum but wraps cleanly on the drum itself.
WARNING: Never put the furling line on a winch to furl the sail.
8. BLEEDING THE FUEL SYSTEM: P31/Cal 33/P34
DESCRIPTION. The fuel system consists of the deck fill plate (usually red in color), the fill pipe, the tank, the fuel pickup, fuel shutoff petcock, primary filter, fuel pump, secondary filter, injection pump and fuel injectors. These parts are listed in their order of appearance from start to finish; parts from the fuel pump on are physically located on the engine.
PROBLEM OF AIR IN THE FUEL SYSTEM: From time to time the fuel system will be impacted by air in the fuel lines and lead to an engine shutdown. When air enters the fuel lines the system loses its prime and with it the ability to draw fuel from the tank and push it forward to the injection pump. This is normally caused by running the engine with a low fuel supply. Motorsailing with low fuel or being in a sloppy wave environment increase the likelihood that air will be drawn into the system as the fuel pickup line experiences periods when it is not fully immersed in fuel. The size, location, and configuration of the fuel tank also contribute to air problems. The problem may reveal itself several weeks after air was drawn into the system as the bubble moves downstream slowly.
PURGING AIR FROM THE SYSTEM: Air must be purged and replaced with solid fuel from the tank pickup line through to the injection pump. It is generally not necessary to bleed the injectors. No step below can be omitted if purging is to be successful.
1. BLEED THE PRIMARY FILTER: The primary filter has a bleed screw (either plastic or brass) on the top next to a knurled white knob (the priming pump). Unscrew the bleed screw a few turns, loosen the knurled white knob until it lifts up, then pump it until fuel comes out the bleed screw port. Close the bleed screw (snug so it doesn’t leak, not tight so it breaks off), and screw the knurled pump knob back down onto its seat.
2. BLEED THE SECONDARY FILTER: The secondary filter is a cannister mounted up front on top of the engine. There is a 10 mm bleed screw (also slotted for Phillips screwdriver) on top of this cannister. Unscrew this a few turns, reach aft to the fuel p[ump (follow the fuel inlet line back to pump), find the priming lever outside the pump and work it up and down until solid fuel emerges from the bleed screw on the secondary filter. Close the screw (snug, not tight) so it doesn’t leak fuel.
3.BLEED THE INJECTION PUMP INLET LINE: Follow the metal braided fuel line from the secondary filter to the injection pump. There is a 10 mm bleed screw on the top of the fuel inlet line bolt (the bolt that holds the fuel line to the injection pump). Loosen this a few turns and operate the priming lever on the fuel pump again to purge air from the line leading to the injection pump. When solid fuel emerges, close the bleed screw and start the engine. It should start. quickly.
NEVER CRANK THE ENGINE REPEATEDLY IN AN EFFORT TO START IT WITHOUT FIRST TURNING OFF THE ENGINE WATER INTAKE. REOPEN THE INTAKE WHEN IT STARTS. FAILURE TO DO THIS COULD RUIN THE ENGINE.
9. CONTENTS OF THE SPARES AND TOOL KITS:
Tools: Located in orange box marked “Tools”
- Complete metric open end wrenches (for engine only) sizes 8 to 17 millimeter
- Complete American standard open end wrenches 1/4 to 7/8
- 5 assorted screwdrivers
- 1 adjustable wrench
- 1 adjustable pipe wrench
- 1 set vise grips
- 1 razor knife
- Flashlight with 4 spare batteries
- 1 set Allen wrenches 5/64 – 1/4
Spares: Located in orange box marked “Spares”.
- Set of engine drive belts
- Raw water pump impeller and O-ring gasket
- Miscellaneous bulbs for running and interior lights
- Sail slides and shackles
- Clevis pins and cotter rings/pins assortment
- Miscellaneous nuts bolts, screws
- Set of hose clamps, various sizes
- EMERGENCY WOOD PLUG SET
- Boxes of spare fuses 1-20 amp
- Set of shear pins for outboard motor
- Toilet rebuild kit for Jabsco 29090 toilet
- 2 quarts of SAE 30 motor oil for engine and transmission.
- 2 pts of outboard motor oil for dinghy motor.
LUBRICATION REQUIREMENTS: P31/Cal 33/P34
Engine: SAE 30 wt detergent oil specified for diesels. Do not use multi-viscisity oil in these engines since they will not mix well with single weight oil. Check oil regularly and add oil only through the yellow oil fill caps on the engine. Do not overfill.
Transmission: SAE 30 motor oil. These engines use motor oil in the gearboxes, not transmission fluid. To test gearbox level, unscrew yellow fill cap on transmission, wipe clean and set on top of opening. Do not screw it back in for reading. Proper level will be at the mark on the bottom of the dipstick. Look carefully at it since the oil is transparent. Add oil if needed in small quantities, retesting for level as you go. Do not overfill.
Outboard Motor: Use outboard motor oil only. Mix with gasoline to achieve a 50 to 1 gas to oil ratio. When filling, add oil to tank first and then add gasoline to aid in mixing the fuel and oil.